By Anna Verschik
Anna Verschik deals a brand new viewpoint on how a formerly monolingual group of Russian-speakers in Estonia is speedily turning into bilingual after the tip of the Soviet career in 1991. The contact-induced swap in Russian lower than the growing to be impression of Estonian is analysed within the theoretical framework of code-copying. adjustments in linguistic behaviour of the audio system are usually as a result intentional cultivation of non-monolingual verbal exchange techniques and language regulations, and pass hand in hand with the advance of a brand new id, 'Estonian Russians'. rising Bilingual Speech is a fasc. Read more...
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Additional info for Emerging bilingual speech : from monolingualism to code-copying
Prior to 1991, Estonian- and Russian-medium schools were bastions of their respective ethnolignuistic identities. Today, bilingual and immersion education programs are available and increasingly popular. Some Russian-speaking parents even choose Estonian-medium schools for their children and, as Raud (2004) explains, are actively Estonianizing their children. Emerging Multilingual Communication 33 According to Mart Rannut (2006), the role of Russian- and Estonian-medium schools in Estonian society is currently in transition.
By that time Estonians, the local majority, had already exhibited a high degree of national awareness and formed their proto-elites, while modern Estonian literature, theater, and press were rapidly developing. The achievements in the sphere of language planning and modern Estonianlanguage literature were impressive. The Estonian middle class was beginning to form and the share of Estonians among the urban population was on the increase. Estonia became an independent state in 1918. After the Russian revolution of 1917 some Russian émigrés settled there.
Neither the traditional notions of “immigrants” nor “guest workers” are adequate and appropriate in the Baltic context. An immigrant makes a conscious decision to settle in a foreign country and to take the consequences: to get used to an unfamiliar setting, to acquire at least a working knowledge of a new language, to learn about cultural realities and customs of the host country. In other words, an immigrant consciously crosses the state border. All this does not apply in our case because in the mind of the newcomers no such border existed.