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By Judith Rumgay

Judith Rumgay explores theoretical reasons of the alcohol crime dating, severely analyzes their empirical aid in examine, and develops a standpoint in response to "expectancy theory", which means that alcohol allows offending much less via its actual pharmacological results than throughout the number of logic ideals approximately these results that are embedded in lifestyle. An empirical research of magistrates' sentencing judgements illuminates the variety of causes for crime in response to intoxication, during the entice logic ideals approximately alcohol's results.

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The inclusion of expectancy theory would shift the theoretical focus to the effects which the individual is motivated to achieve in the situation in which drinking takes place, his belief in alcohol's ability to produce those effects, and how he learns to interpret alcohol's generalised pharmacological effects as specific changes in mood, facilitating desired, but prohibited behaviour. Such a shift in theoretical emphasis would support the confident attribution of criminal responsibility, by implying the motivated use of alcohol in the commission of crime.

Furthermore, the salience of different factors to an individual's drinking pattern changes over the life span, for example in the relative influence of parental and peer group models (Zucker 1979). Finally, the influence of historical factors is heavily modified by the individual's contemporary social position and drinking environment (Blane 1979; Collins 1982; Harford, Wechsler and Rothman 1983; Hauge and Irgens-Jensen 1987; Hope 1985; Nusbaumer, Mauss and Pearson 1982; Sadava 1987; Zucker 1979).

Roebuck and Johnson (1962) attribute the failure of 'jack-of-all-trades' offenders to progress in professional crime to their clumsiness, poor self-discipline, frequent apprehension, indiscriminate choice of crime and isolation from more sophisticated criminals. The single area of relative social competence displayed by these offenders was their comparative sobriety! The popularity of the undersocialisation concept is accompanied by a tendency to regard its explanatory power as self-evident. Bahr and Caplow (1974) challenge such theoretical complacency, after finding that skid-row drinkers were more sociable, had more friends and more family and community ties than abstainers, whose histories were marked by non-attachment.

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