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Download Concrete Materials: Properties, Specifications and Testing by Sandor Popovics PDF

By Sandor Popovics

This e-book offers an in-depth method of concrete constituents and their relationships to concrete by way of discussing their houses, pertinent try equipment, standards, right use and choice, and options to difficulties in perform. The technique is perform orientated, and the e-book assists within the more advantageous software of concrete via a radical knowing of its constituents. this can be aided by means of the dialogue of yes basic facets and relationships in quantitative kinds, and by means of additionally featuring the translation of study and adventure. an in depth bibliography is integrated. The publication is a present, geared up precis of data touching on concrete-making fabrics, in order to permit the engineer/user to make the absolute best product utilizing those fabrics.

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Additional info for Concrete Materials: Properties, Specifications and Testing

Sample text

6). 7. recorded national specifications for portland cement, by Germany in 1878, already contained adopted requirements for fineness, soundness, and strength The first specifications for cement in [Woods 19591. the United States were recommended by the American Society of Civil Engineers in 1885. The measured value of any of the cement properties is greatly influenced by the testing which may water conditions, include temperature, time of mixing, type of testing equipment, content, All these factors must be standardized and so forth.

Then the is made up of eight cubes of size a/2, surface, will surface area, as well as the specific be doubled. Since the hydration starts at the surface the higher the specific of the cement particles, surface, the more intensive become the early portions the specific surface Incidentally, of the hydration. 11. 1962a1, as demonstrated surface of a portland cement is The specific usually determined either by an optical method or by although it can also be an air-permeability method, measured by gas (nitrogen) absorption.

The standard forms of the Vicat apparatus used in European differ slightly from the form countries accepted in the United States. The Gillmore method applies to needles of pattern 50 Concrete Materials similar to that shown in fig. 12. 6 g) is used for the final set. 5 mm) in thickness is prepared. The initial set is considered to have taken place when the light gently applied to the surface of the pat, needle, fails to make an appreciable indentation. The final set is considered to have taken place when the heavy needle fails to make an appreciable indentation.

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