By Richard A. Behr
Glass is more and more getting used as a structural fabric in new constructions. The structural envelope may well consist both fullyyt or in part of glass, and this pattern to eschew conventional fabrics resembling brick and urban for steel-framed, glass clad structures provides inherent difficulties. an incredible factor is the functionality of glazing in the course of earthquakes and severe climatic occasions, comparable to windstorms and heavy snow lots. This authoritative e-book stories the present state-of-the paintings in glass and glazing expertise to withstand failure because of those normal occasions.
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Additional info for Architectural Glass to Resist Seismic and Extreme Climatic Events
The surface residual stress makes HS and FT glass about two times and four times stronger, respectively, in out-of-plane ﬂexure than the same size and thickness of AN glass (GANA, 2004). e. supported at or near the ﬁrst ﬂoor, and span to the second ﬂoor as shown in Fig. 9. Storefront glass lites are usually larger than lites in strip windows. Glass breakage during seismic events generally occurs from glass-to-metal contact and resulting damage to the glass edge weakens the glass. Such contact occurs because the clearance between the glass and the framing is consumed by the lateral deformation of the frames.
Early experimental studies by Bouwkamp and Meehan (1960) and Bouwkamp (1961) evaluated the effect of in-plane racking displacements on window specimens with different glass sizes and framing systems (steel, aluminum, and wood sash) glazed with putty sealant (both hard putty and soft putty). Glass panels broke when one upper and one lower corner of the framing members exerted pressure on the glass. Bouwkamp (1961) developed simple equations to predict drift that causes glass failure and compared the theoretical results with experimental results.
G. 1989 Loma Prieta (EERI, 1990), 1994 Northridge (EERI, 1995a), and 2001 Nisqually (EERI, 2001), have revealed the vulnerability of modern building envelopes. g. 1995 (Kobe) Hyogoken-Nambu (EERI, 1995b; FGMAJ, 1995). In general, damage to glazing systems in earthquakes has included glass fracture, excessive and permanent deformation of the glazing frame, and loss of attachment in adhered glass systems. Such damage poses life-safety hazards as shards of glass have fallen on to sidewalks and streets.