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By Rodolfo Paoletti, Dr. David Kritchevsky

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Casei and also A. tumefaciens (see Table I I I ) . Streptococcus hemolyticus, however, contains no lactobacillic acid; the unsaturated acids are cis-vaccenic, hexadec-9-enoic, and hexadec-11-enoic acids (Hofmann and Tausig, 1955a). Ikawa (1963) has also included S. jaecalis, Pediococcus cerevisiae, and Leuconostoc mesenteroides in his studies of the lipids of lactic acid bacteria; the latter two bacteria will be dealt with here for the sake of convenience. These bacteria contain 1-4% of free lipids and about an equal amount of bound lipids.

A. On the Basis of the Gram Stain. With the qualitative and quantitative data now available for a wide range of bacteria, of the order Eubacteriales, a more precise evaluation of the taxonomic approach is possible. Examination of the data in Tables III and IV shows that in general there is a fairly clear-cut distinction between Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria of the order Eubacteriales: the Gram-negatives have high proportions of normal even-numbered saturated and unsaturated acids and odd-numbered cyclopropane acids; the Gram-positives have high proportions of odd-numbered branched chain ( iso or anteiso ) acids and relatively low amounts of straight chain saturated or unsaturated acids.

Phosphatide Composition and Other Lipids Correlation of phosphatide composition with bacterial classification is more difficult than for fatty acid composition since complete data on phosphatide composition are relatively scarce. Nevertheless, with the information available it is possible to see whether any correlation exists at all. a. On the Basis of the Gram Stain. Examination of the data in Tables II and IV shows that the phosphatides of Gram-negative bacteria in general have very high proportions of nitrogenous base-containing phosphatides, chiefly phosphatidylethanolamine; the Gram-positive bacteria contain lower proportions of or no phosphatidylethanolamine, but are rich in amino acid esters of phosphatidylglycerol and in acidic phosphatides such as phosphatidylglycerol and polyglycerol phosphatides.

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