Critical Care

Download Acute Stroke: Bench to Bedside (Neurological Disease and by Anish Bhardwaj, Nabil J. Alkayed, Jeffrey R. Kirsch, Richard PDF

By Anish Bhardwaj, Nabil J. Alkayed, Jeffrey R. Kirsch, Richard J. Traystman

Because the 3rd best explanation for dying within the usa, stroke bills for one in each fifteen deaths and is the key reason behind incapacity within the state. Compiled via a popular editorial workforce, this reference bridges the distance among simple technology and sufferer care protocols, and collects forty three expertly written chapters that diversity from laboratory-based examine on animal types to the development, mechanisms, remedy, and diagnosis of ailments akin to subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH), focal ischemic stroke, and worldwide cerebral ischemia.

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Additional info for Acute Stroke: Bench to Bedside (Neurological Disease and Therapy)

Example text

A disappointing feature common to all animal models of SAH and vasospasm is the lack of vasospasm-related ischemic, neurologic deficits (28), most likely secondary to an abundance of collateral blood flow in smaller vertebrates. However, in that most studies focus on the induction, prevention, and/or reversal of vessel constriction rather than on vasospasm-related ischemia, the absence of ischemic neurologic deficits in experimental animals has limited significance. MONKEY MODELS The first use of monkeys for the study of vasospasm was reported in 1965 (29).

In this report, an occipital burr hole was placed and, under fluoroscopic guidance, a catheter was directed into the subarachnoid space close to the orbit and inserted into the right carotid artery. The goal of the study was to analyze the electrocardiographic changes that occur after SAH; vasospasm was not evaluated. 25 ml/kg of autologous arterial blood are injected into the surgically exposed cisterna magna, followed by placement of the animal head-down at 30° for 30 min to confine the blood to the intracranial cisterns (Fig.

Source: From Ref. 119. The authors concluded that the double-hemorrhage model was the most suitable alternative for studying mechanistic and therapeutic approaches for vasospasm. Extracranial Models Another currently popular model utilizes the rat femoral artery. This model consists of exposing the femoral artery, isolating it in a silicon cuff, and filling the cuff with blood or blood components (Fig. 3) (118). Peak morphometric vasospasm in this model occurs on day 7 and is accompanied by pathologic changes in the arterial wall.

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